Prasa NSZZ “Solidarność” na ziemi jasielskiej w latach 1981–1989

Paweł Bukowski

Abstrakt


[NSZZ Solidarity Press in the Jasło Region during the Period from 1981 to 1989]

The eighties of the present century were a period of turbulent political events and changes in the information systems in Poland. A difficult political and social situation in Poland, as well as economic crisis led to conflicts. In the whole country strike committees were formed and in each enterprise the organisation of NSZZ "Solidarność" (Independent and Autonomous Trade Union "Solidarity") was created. The new organisation started to demand access to mass media simultaneously publishing illegal materials without censorship. In the Jasło region the first paper to release even before the introduction of the martial law on August 23rd, 1981 was "Wiadomości NSZZ Indywidualnego Rzemiosła Solidarność" (The News of the Independent Trade Solidarity). When the martial law was announced on December 13th, 1981, radio propaganda in Polish from abroad became more powerful, especially in the "Radio Free Europe". "Solidarity" directed its main efforts towards propaganda and information campaigns using many available channels of illegal dissemination such as copied editions, "Solidarity Radio", tape-recorder cassettes with special recordings, religious and patriotic films on video, organisation of cultural and educational events on important occasions and patriotic or religious anniversaries, leaflets, whisper propaganda, and first of all illegal press and materials printed on leaflets. Secondary circulation press was the essential means of "Solidarity" propaganda. During the period from 1981 to 1989, 8 press titles were released in the Jasło region ("Biuletyn Informacyjny NSZZ Solidarność", "NSZZ Solidarność Jasło", "Solidarność NSZZ 'S' Jasło", "Wiadomości NSZZ IRz Solidarność") and 37 prints on leaflets. In 1981 the biggest number of 28 of illegal publications appeared, and 62 editions (including 3 press titles and 25 issues of materials printed on leaflets). The year 1989 recorded the smallest number of publications, that is 2 titles and 3 editions. The secondary circulation press criticised the whole post-war period in Poland and the financial, social, cultural and legal condition of the Polish society. Facts, which were omitted in other information systems, were presented there, and historic data, which used to be "blank spots" in the history of Poland were discussed, as well as the current issues of Jasło and the whole country.
The article, beside providing characteristic features of "Solidarity" press, presented and analysed the typology of materials printed on leaflets issued by the political underground in Jasło. The total number of 37 titles and 57 editions of various materials appeared in the Jasło region between 1981 and 1989. The contents of the leaflets included information about creating secret "Solidarity" structures and evaluation of the current situation. The published material took on various forms depending on the events in progress. There were leaflets (3), proclamations (15), posters (7), resolutions (5), news bulletins (4), and instructions (3). There was no symbol of a publisher on them. At the bottom of some materials there was a comment: "Read and pass on." The publications of the secondary circulation were adapted to illegal conditions, and their objective was to systematically limit the influence of the official media. Some titles came into being only in order to create an impression of their greater number and that is why they were single editions, subsequently changed and continued under the changed title.


Słowa kluczowe


Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy; czasopisma; historia; Solidarność; Jasło (okręg)

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